Who came up with the concept of literariness?

The term ‘literariness’ was first introduced by the Russian Formalist Roman Jacobson in 1921. He declared in his work Modern Russian Poetry that ‘the object of literary science is not literature but literariness, i.e. what makes a given work a literary work’ (Das 2005, p. 78).

Who begin the study of literary theory criticism?

The theory and criticism of literature are tied to the history of literature. However, the modern sense of “literary theory” only dates to approximately the 1950s when the structuralist linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure began to strongly influence English language literary criticism.

What is literary theory according to scholars?

“Literary theory” is the body of ideas and methods we use in the practical reading of literature. By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean.

Who talked about wit and Judgement in literary criticism?

He is one of the most notable critics of Neo Classism era. He published a lengthy poem “An Essay on Criticism”. He noted three qualities of appropriate criticism: Nature, Judgment and Wit.

What does Gynocriticism recommend as an approach to literature?

Gynocritics are primarily engaged in identifying distinctly feminine subject matter (domesticity, gestation) in the literature written by women, uncovering the history of female literary tradition, depicting that there is a feminine mode of experience and subjectivity in thinking and perceiving the self and the world ,

What is Literariness theory?

Thus, literariness is defined as being the feature that makes a given work a literary work. It distinguishes a literary work from ordinary texts by using certain artistic devices such as metre, rhyme, and other patterns of sound and repetition.

What according to Viktor Shklovsky is the purpose of Defamiliarization?

The Russian Formalists’ concept of “Defamiliarization”, proposed by Viktor Shklovsky in his Art as Technique, refers to the literary device whereby language is used in such a way that ordinary and familiar objects are made to look different.

Who advocated formalism?

Though Greenberg was the most influential advocate of formalism, as the 1960s progressed he was not its only champion.

Where did formalism originate?

Origins. As a movement in literary studies and a school of literary theory and analysis, formalism emerged in Russia and Poland during the 1910s.

Who is the most well known exponent of Russian Formalism?

Russian Formalism or East European Formalism is a school of literary criticism and literary theory that originated in Moscow (Moscow Linguistic Circle) and St. Petersburg (Opojaz) in the 1920s. Among the leading representatives of the movement were Boris Eichenbaum, Victor Shklovsky, and Roman Jakobson.

When did formalism start?

Formalism, also called Russian Formalism, Russian Russky Formalism, innovative 20th-century Russian school of literary criticism. It began in two groups: OPOYAZ, an acronym for Russian words meaning Society for the Study of Poetic Language, founded in 1916 at St.

What is Viktor Shklovsky contribution to literary criticism?

Viktor Shklovsky coined the term “Defamiliarization” in the essay, “Art as Device” which was part of the Theory of Prose (1925). Defamiliarization is also known as estrangement. Defamiliarization is the act of making common entities unfamiliar to the reader.

What are the two influential school of formalism?

Two schools of formalist literary criticism developed, Russian formalism, and soon after Anglo-American New Criticism.

Who are the formalist critics?

And (2) the formalist critic assumes an ideal reader: that is, instead of focusing on the varying spectrum of possible readings, he attempts to find a central point of reference from which he can focus upon the structure of the poem or novel.

What is Russian Formalism and New Criticism?

Russian Formalism and New Criticism is. a research method, a type of textual research, that literary critics use to interpret texts. a genre of discourse employed by literary critics used to share the results of their interpretive efforts.

Who among the following has been credited with laying the foundation of comparative literature by Russian Formalists?

However, antecedents can be found in the ideas of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in his vision of “world literature” (Weltliteratur) and Russian Formalists credited Alexander Veselovsky with laying the groundwork for the discipline.

Who introduced the word foregrounding for the first time in the study of poetic language?

The term foregrounding has its origin with the Czech theorist Jan Mukarovský: it is how Mukarovský’s original term, aktualisace, was rendered in English by his first translator (Mukarovský, 1932/1964).

What year founded Moscow Linguistic Circle?

development of Formalism – …by Viktor Shklovsky; and the Moscow Linguistic Circle, founded in 1915.

What is the contribution of Roman Jakobson towards Russian Formalism?

Jakobson introduced the concept of metaphor and metonymy in his “Two Aspects of Language and Two Types of Aphasic Disturbances” (1956), two rhetorical figures representing two fundamental ways of organising discourse.

Who introduced formalism in the European continent?

On the European continent, formalism emerged primarily out of the Slavic intellectual circles of Prague and Moscow, and particularly out of the work of Roman Jakobson, Boris Eichenbaum, and Viktor Shklovsky.

How did formalism originate?

Formalism emerged as a reaction against the methods of literary scholarship of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It countered the study of literature that took an exclusive approach in which the content and ideas of literary works were embraced as faithful reflections of social and political reality.

Who was the art critic who advanced the idea of formalism in art?

Clement Greenberg – According to the poet and critic John Yau, “with his 1939 essay ‘Avant-Garde and Kitsch’ Greenberg began to develop his brand of Formalist theory regarding innovative modern art

Who introduced New Criticism?

Although the New Critics were never a formal group, an important inspiration was the teaching of John Crowe Ransom of Kenyon College, whose students (all Southerners), Allen Tate, Cleanth Brooks, and Robert Penn Warren would go on to develop the aesthetics that came to be known as the New Criticism.

What does formalism mean in philosophy?

FORMALISM. Formalism is the view that theoretical information about an object, or practical guidance about how to treat it, are to be derived from attention to its form rather than its matter or content. The idea originates in ancient Greek metaphysics.

What is formalism in sociology?

Formalism in sociology is a rather nebulous concept. It usually refers, rather loosely, to approaches that argue for the study of ‘social forms’. On one level this refers to an analysis of the institutional and organisational aspects of a society, rather than of individuals.

What are the three features of formalism?

  • Words (meaning of the words)
  • Shape/structure of the text.
  • Harmony of the words.
  • The rhythm of the sentences.
  • Rhyming of the words.
  • Meaning of the text as a whole.


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